How can I extract or uncompress a file from tar ball downloaded from the Internet under Linux using Terminal ?

What is Tar Ball?  

tar-gz

You need to use the tar command to extract files from an archive or to create an archive (also known as tarball). A tarball or an archive is nothing but a single file that contains various individual files. It also includes information which allows your to restore files to their original form by one or more extraction programs such as tar command.

Extract or Unpack a TarBall File

To unpack or extract a tar file, type:

 
tar -xvf file.tar
 

To save disk space and bandwidth over the network all files are saved using compression program such as gzip or bzip2. To extract / unpack a .tar.gz (gzip) file, enter (note -z option):

 
tar -xzvf file.tar.gz
 

To extract / unpack a .tar.bz2 (bzip2) file, enter (note -j option):

 
tar -xjvf file.tar.bz2
 

Where,

  • -x : Extract a tar ball.
  • -v : Verbose output or show progress while extracting files.
  • -f : Specify an archive or a tarball filename.
  • -j : Decompress and extract the contents of the compressed archive created by bzip2 program (tar.bz2 extension).
  • -z : Decompress and exxtract the contents of the compressed archive created by gzip program (tar.gz extension). 

How Do I Extract A Single File Called foo.txt?

To extract a single file called foo.txt, enter:

 
tar -xvf file.tar foo.txt
tar -xzvf file.tar.gz foo.txt
tar -xjvf file.tar.bz2 foo.txt
 

You can also specify path such as etc/resolv.conf, enter:

 
tar -xvf file.tar etc/resolv.conf
tar -xzvf file.tar.gz etc/resolv.conf
tar -xjvf file.tar.bz2 etc/resolv.conf
 

How Do I Extract a Single Directory Called etc?

To extract a single directory called etc, enter:

 
tar -xvf file.tar etc
tar -xzvf file.tar.gz etc
tar -xjvf file.tar.bz2 etc 

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Using UNetbootin Write the GNU/Linux Operationg System (.iso File) to ur pendrive for booting or Installing Linux in your PC

What is UnetBootin?

UNetbootin can create a bootable Live USB drive, or it can make a “frugal install” on your local hard disk if you don’t have a USB drive. It loads distributions either by downloading a ISO (CD image) files for you, or by using an ISO file you’ve already downloaded.

screenshot

1) Select a Linux Distribution (2) Select a  specific Version (3) Make sure the correct USB Drive is detected and Click OK

Using UNetbootin - Fetch the files from the Net  

screenshot 

Or you can use Option Two…

Option Two – Diskimage: Browse to an ISO and have UNetbootin copy it’s contents to your USB.

(1) Browse to the ISO Image you would like UNetbootin to put on USB (2) Make sure the correct USB Drive is detected and Click OK  

UNetbootin DiskImage ISO Option 

 screenshot

Once the UNetbootin installer has completed, click Reboot Now

Set your system BIOS (To change BIOS press F2 or F11 according to ur System Requirement) or boot menu to boot from the USB device and enjoy your favorite Live Linux on USB. 

 

How to install the GNU/Linux Operating System in your Pc ?

Step 1:
The first thing you should do is head to http://www.ubuntu.com/download/ubuntu/download and download Ubuntu 11.10 LiveCD. Just click the big orange Start download box.

Step 2:
Using your disc burning software, burn the .iso you downloaded to a CD.

Step 3:
Before you go any further, ensure all important data is backed up in case of data loss on your drives. This guide assumes you have media backups of your Windows partitioned hard drive and you are safe to proceed.

***Warning: Installing another operating system without first ensuring you have backups of your current files and operating system is a big risk. If you have no data to lose or you’ve backed up important data, you’re ready to proceed. YOU are responsible if you lose data.For those of you using Windows, and installing Linux for the first time I recommend you either use a separate hard disk that does not contain the Windows OS, or create a partition big enough for Linux within Windows using Disk Management in the Administrative Tools menu of the control panel. 30GB of hard disk space is absolutely plenty of space for you to begin exploring Ubuntu whilst at the same time having room to grow.

Step 4:
Ensure you have a network cable connected, restart your computer, and boot from the CD drive.

Step 5:
The LiveCD will load up, and you’ll be presented by the following box:

[​IMG]

For the purposes of this guide, we will assume you’ve already tried Ubuntu and want to proceed with an installation, so click “Install Ubuntu.”

Step 6:
You’ll be greeted by the “Preparing to install Ubuntu” screen, exactly as below:

[​IMG]

I recommend you select “Install third-party software” as I have done in the screenshot above. I prefer to do system updates once up and running, but if you have the extra time you can also select “download updates while installing” as well. Then click continue.

Step 7:
The next screen you will see is “installation type,” what you see will be dependent on whether you have an existing Windows installation or not.

I’m going to split this into three different sub-steps, to make it as simple as possible.

Step 7-A:
For those installing in a virtual machine or to hard disks without an OS you will see the following screen:

[​IMG]

You have two choices:

1. Erase the entire disk and use all of it for installation — Ubuntu will automatically partition your disk and proceed with installation.
2. Select “something else” and manually create your partitions (which is covered in detail in step 7-C).

If you are choosing the first option, select the radio button and then click continue, proceeding to step 8.

Step 7-B:

  1. Those of you that have current Windows installations or are going to dual-boot with another existing OS will be presented with a screen similar to below:

    [​IMG]

    You have three options available:

    1. You can choose the first option and install Ubuntu alongside your existing OS.
    2. You can opt to replace your Windows installation with Ubuntu, allowing the installer to format your current partitions and automatically create new ones for Linux.
    3. You can choose “something else” and create your own partition scheme and sizing (covered in detail in step 7-C).

    Once you have selected which route you wish to proceed with click continue and proceed to step 8.

    Step 7-C:
    Having selected the “something else” option you will be presented with the following window:

    [​IMG]

    Linux recognizes and assigns IDs to drive in a different manner to Windows. In the above image, you can clearly see my hard disk in the list. It is identified by “/dev/sda.” Linux recognizes drives in the following way:
    • Sda = 1st drive
    • Sdb = 2nd drive
    • Sdc = 3rd drive and so on

    Partitions are also shown after the drive letters. So if I had 2 partitions on my first disk, they would be identified as:
    • Sda1 – 1st drive, 1st partition
    • Sda2 – 1st drive, 2nd partition

    You will not see the common Windows C: label in the disk menu in the above list. You do, however, have key things to help you recognize your Windows C: drive. Both of these can be used to identify which is your Windows disk.
    • The size of the disk is shown
    • The name of the drive is shown

    This is your current partition layout for your hard disks. If you have more than one disk, they will show up as /dev/sda, /dev/sdb etc.

    Firstly, identify your Windows installation. In my case, it’s sda1 (which is my first hard disk, first partition). What you see depends on how you created the extra space. I just resized the Windows partition from within Windows, and left the free space ready to install Linux. I recommend using Windows or a free utility from within Windows to resize your partition as most beginners will understand it more.

    Therefore, we now need create a minimum of two partitions:

    Click “Add” and the following box will appear:

    [​IMG]

    ou will notice I have already filled out the example above to create a 10GB root partition.

    You can have a maximum of 4 primary partitions, or 3 primary partitions and 1 logical (which allows for another 64 partitions)
    The size above is 10.00GB. e.g 1,000 = 1GB 10,000 = 10GB (Remember to leave enough free remaining space to create your SWAP partition!)
    Location for new partition: e.g. do you want it at the start or end of the free space. Select beginning.
    Use as: Ext4 is the recommended file system for Ubuntu, much the same as NTFS is Windows. SWAP is for SWAP space.
    Mount point: This is where you want the partition to mount. E.g. we need a root partition, which in Linux is denoted by a “/”.

    Click OK once you have finished setting the partition information and you will return to your partition screen, now showing the root partition you just created. Using the same methods as before, create a SWAP partition.

    I recommend you set the size of your SWAP partition to at least the size of your available RAM. If you have plenty of hard disk capacity I would suggest you use double the size. So if you have 2GB of RAM, set it to either 2GB or 4GB. For best performance it is recommended you have your SWAP partition at the beginning or end of your drive.

List of Free Software Licenses

Introduction

We classify a license according to certain key criteria:

  • Whether it qualifies as a free software license.
  • Whether it is a copyleft license.
  • Whether it is compatible with the GNU GPL. Unless otherwise specified, compatible licenses are compatible with both GPLv2 and GPLv3.
  • Whether it causes any particular practical problems.

We try to list the most commonly encountered free software license on this page, but cannot list them all; we’ll try our best to answer questions about free software licenses whether or not they are listed here. The licenses are more or less in alphabetical order within each section.

If you believe you have found a violation of one of our licenses, please refer to our license violation page.

If you’ve started a new project and you’re not sure what license to use, “How to choose a license for your own work” details our recommendations in an easy-to-follow guide.

If you have questions about free software licenses, you can email us at <licensing@fsf.org>. Because our resources are limited, we do not answer questions that are meant to assist proprietary software development or distribution, and you’ll likely get an answer faster if you ask a specific question that isn’t already covered here or in our FAQ. We welcome knowledgeable volunteers who want to help answer licensing questions.

If you are contemplating writing a new license, please also contact us at <licensing@fsf.org>. The proliferation of different free software licenses is a significant problem in the free software community today, both for users and developers. We will do our best to help you find an existing free software license that meets your needs.

If you are wondering what license a particular software package is using, please visit the Free Software Directory. The Free Software Directory catalogues over 6000 free software packages and their licensing information.

Software Licenses

GPL-Compatible Free Software Licenses

(#GPLCompatibleLicenses)

The following licenses qualify as free software licenses, and are compatible with the GNU GPL.

GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3 (#GNUGPL) (#GNUGPLv3)
This is the latest version of the GNU GPL: a free software license, and a copyleft license. We recommend it for most software packages.

Please note that GPLv3 is not compatible with GPLv2 by itself. However, most software released under GPLv2 allows you to use the terms of later versions of the GPL as well. When this is the case, you can use the code under GPLv3 to make the desired combination. To learn more about compatibility between GNU licenses.

 

GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2 (#GPLv2)
This is the previous version of the GNU GPL: a free software license, and a copyleft license. We recommend the latest version for most software.

Please note that GPLv2 is, by itself, not compatible with GPLv3. However, most software released under GPLv2 allows you to use the terms of later versions of the GPL as well. When this is the case, you can use the code under GPLv3 to make the desired combination. To learn more about compatibility between GNU licenses.

GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 3 (#LGPL) (#LGPLv3)
This is the latest version of the LGPL: a free software license, but not a strong copyleft license, because it permits linking with nonfree modules. It is compatible with GPLv3. We recommend it for special circumstances only.

Please note that LGPLv3 is not compatible with GPLv2 by itself. However, most software released under GPLv2 allows you to use the terms of later versions of the GPL as well. When this is the case, you can use the code under GPLv3 to make the desired combination. To learn more about compatibility between GNU licenses.

 

GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.1 (#LGPLv2.1)
This is the previous version of the LGPL: a free software license, but not a strong copyleft license, because it permits linking with nonfree modules. It is compatible with GPLv2 and GPLv3. We generally recommend the latest version of the LGPL, for special circumstances only. To learn more about how LGPLv2.1 is compatible with other GNU licenses.

GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL) version 3 (#AGPL) (#AGPLv3.0)
This is a free software, copyleft license. Its terms effectively consist of the terms of GPLv3, with an additional paragraph in section 13 to allow users who interact with the licensed software over a network to receive the source for that program. We recommend that developers consider using the GNU AGPL for any software which will commonly be run over a network.

Please note that the GNU AGPL is not compatible with GPLv2. It is also technically not compatible with GPLv3 in a strict sense: you cannot take code released under the GNU AGPL and convey or modify it however you like under the terms of GPLv3, or vice versa. However, you are allowed to combine separate modules or source files released under both of those licenses in a single project, which will provide many programmers with all the permission they need to make the programs they want. See section 13 of both licenses for details.

 

GNU All-Permissive License (#GNUAllPermissive)
This is a lax, permissive free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL, which we recommend GNU packages use for README and other small supporting files. All developers can feel free to use it in similar situations.

Older versions of this license did not have the second sentence with the express warranty disclaimer. This same analysis applies to both versions.

Apache License, Version 2.0 (#apache2)
This is a free software license, compatible with version 3 of the GNU GPL.

Please note that this license is not compatible with GPL version 2, because it has some requirements that are not in that GPL version. These include certain patent termination and indemnification provisions. The patent termination provision is a good thing, which is why we recommend the Apache 2.0 license for substantial programs over other lax permissive licenses.

Artistic License 2.0 (#ArtisticLicense2)
This license is a free software license, compatible with the GPL thanks to the relicensing option in section 4(c)(ii).

Clarified Artistic License
This license is a free software license, compatible with the GPL. It is the minimal set of changes needed to correct the vagueness of the Artistic License 1.0.

 

Berkeley Database License (a.k.a. the Sleepycat Software Product License) (#BerkeleyDB)
This is a free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

Boost Software License (#boost)
This is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

Modified BSD license (#ModifiedBSD)
This is the original BSD license, modified by removal of the advertising clause. It is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

This license is sometimes referred to as the 3-clause BSD license.

The modified BSD license is not bad, as lax permissive licenses go, though the Apache 2.0 license is preferable. However, it is risky to recommend use of “the BSD license”, even for special cases such as small programs, because confusion could easily occur and lead to use of the flawed original BSD license. To avoid this risk, you can suggest the X11 license instead. The X11 license and the modified revised BSD license are more or less equivalent.

However, the Apache 2.0 license is better for substantial programs, since it prevents patent treachery.

 

CC0 (#CC0)
CC0 is a public domain dedication from Creative Commons. A work released under CC0 is dedicated to the public domain to the fullest extent permitted by law. If that is not possible for any reason, CC0 also provides a lax, permissive license as a fallback. Both public domain works and the lax license provided by CC0 are compatible with the GNU GPL.

If you want to release your work to the public domain, we recommend you use CC0.

CeCILL version 2 (#CeCILL)
The CeCILL is a free software license, explicitly compatible with the GNU GPL.

The text of the CeCILL uses a couple of biased terms that ought to be avoided: “intellectual property” and “protection”; this decision was unfortunate, because reading the license tends to spread the presuppositions of those terms. However, this does not cause any particular problem for the programs released under the CeCILL.

Section 9.4 of the CeCILL commits the program’s developers to certain forms of cooperation with the users, if someone attacks the program with a patent. You might look at that as a problem for the developer; however, if you are sure you would want to cooperate with the users in those ways anyway, then it isn’t a problem for you.

The Clear BSD License (#clearbsd)
This is a free software license, compatible with both GPLv2 and GPLv3. It is based on the modified BSD license, and adds a term expressly stating it does not grant you any patent licenses. Because of this, we encourage you to be careful about using software under this license; you should first consider whether the licensor might want to sue you for patent infringement. If the developer is refusing users patent licenses to set up a trap for you, it would be wise to avoid the program.

 

Cryptix General License (#CryptixGeneralLicense)
This is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL. It is very similar to the X11 license.

License of the ec fonts for LaTeX (#ecfonts)
This license covers the European Computer Modern Fonts and Text Companion Fonts, commonly used with LaTeX. Depending on how it is used, it may be free or not. If the package says that some fonts in the package may not be modified, then the package is nonfree. Otherwise the package is free. The original fonts have no restrictions on modification, so they are free.

Much like the LaTeX Project Public License 1.2, this license requires modified versions of the work to use a name that’s different from the name of any prior version. This is acceptable for work meant to be used with LaTeX, since TeX allows you to create filename mappings for your programs, but it’s very annoying and could be overly burdensome in other contexts.

eCos license version 2.0 (#eCos2.0)
The eCos license version 2.0 is a GPL-compatible free software license. It consists of the GPL, plus an exception allowing linking to software not under the GPL. This license has the same disadvantages as the LGPL.

 

Educational Community License 2.0 (#ECL2.0)
This is a free software license, and it is compatible with GPLv3. It is based on the Apache License 2.0; the scope of the patent license has changed so that when an organization’s employee works on a project, the organization does not have to license all of its patents to recipients. This patent license and the indemnification clause in section 9 make this license incompatible with GPLv2.

Eiffel Forum License, version 2 (#Eiffel)
This is a free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL. Previous releases of the Eiffel license are not compatible with the GPL.

EU DataGrid Software License (#EUDataGrid)
This is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

Expat License (#Expat)
This is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL. It is sometimes ambiguously referred to as the MIT License.

For substantial programs it is better to use the Apache 2.0 license since it blocks patent treachery.

 

FreeBSD license (#FreeBSD)
This is the original BSD license with the advertising clause and another clause removed. (It is also sometimes called the “2-clause BSD license”.) It is a lax, permissive non-copyleft free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

Our comments about the Modified BSD license apply to this license too.

Freetype Project License (#freetype)
This is a free software license, and compatible with GPLv3. It has some attribution requirements which make it incompatible with GPLv2.

License of the iMatix Standard Function Library (#iMatix)
This is a free software license and is GPL compatible.

License of imlib2 (#imlib)
This is a free software license, and GPL-compatible. The author has explained to us that the GPL’s options for providing source all mean the source has been “made available publicly” in their words.

Independent JPEG Group License (#ijg)
This is a free software license, and compatible with the GNU GPL. The authors have assured us that developers who document changes as required by the GPL will also comply with the similar requirement in this license.

 

Informal license (#informal)
An “informal license” means a statement such as “do whatever you like with this” or “you can redistribute this code and change it.”

In the United States, these licenses are supposed to be interpreted based on what the author seems to intend. So they probably mean what they appear to mean. That would make them non-copyleft free software licenses and compatible with the GNU GPL. However, an unlucky choice of wording could give it a different meaning.

However, many other countries have a more rigid approach to copyright licenses. There is no telling what courts in those countries might decide an informal statement means. Courts might even decide that it is not a license at all.

If you want your code to be free, don’t invite gratuitous trouble for your users. Please choose and apply an established free software license. We offer recommendations that we suggest you follow.

Intel Open Source License (#intel)
This is a free software license, compatible with the GNU GPL.

 

ISC License (#ISC)
This license is sometimes also known as the OpenBSD License. It is a lax, permissive free software license, and compatible with the GNU GPL.

This license does have an unfortunate wording choice: it provides recipients with “Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software…” This is roughly the same language from the license of Pine that the University of Washington later claimed prohibited people from distributing modified versions of the software.

ISC has told us they do not share the University of Washington’s interpretation, and we have every reason to believe them. Thus, there’s no reason to avoid software released under this license. However, to help make sure this language cannot cause any trouble in the future, we encourage developers to choose a different license for their own works. The Expat License and FreeBSD License are similarly permissive and brief.

This are the Some Licenses I Written. To learn and know about more licenses

click this site http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html

What is GNU/Linux?

GNU is a Unix-like computer operating system developed by the GNU Project. It is composed wholly of free software. It is based on the GNU Hurd kernel and is intended to be a “complete Unix-compatible software system” GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix!”, chosen because GNU’s design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being free software and containing no Unix code.

introduction-to-foss-10-728

 

 

Development of GNU was initiated by Richard Stallman in 1983 and was the original focus of the Free Software Foundation (FSF), but no stable release of GNU yet exists as of January 2014. However, non-GNU kernels, most famously the Linux kernel,can also be used with GNU software. Stallman views GNU as a “technical means to a social end.”

introduction-to-foss-14-728

And GNU And Linux Combined to form the GNU/Linux Operating System

10389498_1521204428108405_1623266159888859832_n

The plan for the GNU (“GNU’s Not Unix!”) operating system was publicly announced on September 27, 1983, on the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups by Richard Stallman.  Software development began on January 5, 1984, when Stallman quit his job at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory so that they could not claim ownership or interfere with distributing GNU as free software. Richard Stallman chose the name by using various plays on words, including the song The Gnu.

introduction-to-foss-15-728

The goal was to bring a wholly free software operating system into existence. Stallman wanted computer users to be “free”, as most were in the 1960s and 1970s – free to study the source code of the software they use, free to share the software with other people, free to modify the behavior of the software, and free to publish their modified versions of the software. This philosophy was later published as the GNU Manifesto in March 1985.

Richard Stallman’s experience with the Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS), an early operating system written in assembly language that became obsolete due to discontinuation of PDP-10, the computer architecture for which ITS was written, led to a decision that a portable system was necessary. It was thus decided that GNU would be mostly compatible with Unix.  At the time, Unix was already a popular proprietary operating system. The design of Unix was modular, so it could be reimplemented piece by piece.

Much of the needed software had to be written from scratch, but existing compatible third-party free software components were also used such as the TeX typesetting system, the X Window System, and the Mach microkernel that forms the basis of the GNU Mach core of GNU Hurd (the official kernel of GNU).  With the exception of the aforementioned third-party components, most of GNU has been written by volunteers of the GNU Project; some in their spare time, some paid by companies,  educational institutions, and other non-profit organizations. In October 1985, Stallman set up the Free Software Foundation (FSF). In the late 1980s and 1990s, the FSF hired software developers to write the software needed for GNU.

As GNU gained prominence, interested businesses began contributing to development or selling GNU software and technical support. The most prominent and successful of these was Cygnus Solutions,  now part of Red Hat.

To Learn More About GNU/Linux

Click this site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU

Or

Click http://www.gnu.org/

What is Free software and for what purpose we are going for free software ?

Free software means software that respects user’s freedom and community roughly, the users have the  freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.

Free software is a matter of liberty not price. To understand the concept you should think of Free as free as in free speech.  And the Free software are developed by Free Software Foundation.

FSF_Logo.menor

Click this site http://www.fsf.org/

What are Freedoms of free software ?

Freedom 0 – To run the program for any other purpose.

Freedom 1– To study how the program works, and change it for computing as you wish. Access to source code is precondition for free software.

Freedom 2-To redistribute copies to your neighbours.

Freedom 3-To distribute copies of your modified versions to others.

Richard stallman story of For want of printer. He tells about the GNU(Gnu is not Unix) And GPL(General Public License).

100gnu+freedo

 

To Know Full details About Free Software Click this Site http://www.gnu.org/